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英语语法

grammar

  • 《英语阅读参考手册》为主,点此下载 电子书
  • 《柯林斯 COBUILD 英语语法大全》为辅。

关联阅读:

陈述句的分类

简单句

主谓宾

主语 + 谓语 + 宾语,例如:I love her.

主谓

主语 + 谓语,例如:I gave up.

主系表

主语 + 系动词 + 表语,例如:Tom is shrewd.

表语之所以叫表语,意思是:表示主语状态或性质的语法成分

主谓 + 双宾语

主语 + 谓语 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语,例如:I gave you a book.

如果你和我一样,经常分不清间接宾语和直接宾语,就记住上面这个例子,I gave you a book,我给了你一本书。当我拿着书递到你手上时,我直接接触的是书,所以叫直接宾语,间接接触你,所以叫间接宾语。

间接宾语和直接宾语的区别一般在疑问句里才有用,比如 Who did you buy the car for? 这句话翻译成汉语是「这辆车是你买给谁的?」,其中 who 充当了间接宾语,需要后面补出介词 for。即你不能这样问 Who did you buy the car?【误】

主谓宾 + 宾补

主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语,例如:Tom viewed Jerry as a hero.

宾语补足语 🆚 后置定语

  • 宾语补足语:宾语在承受动作(谓语)之后才产生的属性,例如 We consider the answer correct.
  • 后置定语:表明的属性和谓语体现的动作无关,例如 Tom love the girl operating the machine.

简单句 = 主干成分 + 非主干成分

  • 主干成分即五大基本句型的语法成分:主语、谓语(包括系动词)、宾语(包括直接宾语和间接宾语)、表语、宾语补足语。
  • 非主干成分指修饰限定成分,通常指定语和状语。

提取句子主干的步骤

  1. 找出句子谓语动词
  2. 动作的发出者:主语
  3. 动作的接受者:宾语
  4. 描述主语状态或属性的成分:表语
  5. 补充说明宾语的成分:宾语补足语

复合句

并列复合句

并列复合句指若干个结构、功能、性质相同的简单句用并列连词或表示并列的标点符号(通常是分号和冒号)连接所形成的句子。例如:

The girl looked at me intently, and she invited me to her wedding.

这句话中 and 这个并列连词连接了两个不同的简单句,分别是:

  1. The girl looked at me intently.
  2. She invited me to her wedding.

形成了一个并列复合句。

并列连词

  • for
  • and
  • nor (neither…nor…)
  • but
  • or (either … or…)
  • yet
  • so
  • not only … but also …

首字母缩写为 fanboys(迷弟)。只有并列的对象是句子时,它才是并列复合句。

主从复合句

主从复合句指若干个简单句用从属连词、关系代词、关系副词连接所形成的句子。例如:

She said that the President went to the hospital yesterday.

这句话由两个简单句组成,其中一个是 she said …,另一个是 the President went to the hospital yesterday,其中 that 引导了第二个句子,整体作为前面这个句子的宾语,即宾语从句。

宾语 / 表语从句
  • 主语 + 及物动词 / 系动词 + that / whether / if / how … + 完整句
  • 主语 + 及物动词 / 系动词 + what / who / whom … + 非完整句
主语从句
  • That / Whether / How + 完整句 + 谓语动词 + …
  • What / Who + 非完整句 + 谓语动词 + …
  • It(形式主语)+ 谓语动词 + … + that + 完整句
同位语从句
  • 名词性成分 + that + 完整句
定语从句

关系代词(其指代对象就是先行词)引导:

  • which / that / who / whom / as …+ 非完整句
  • whose …+ 完整句
  • 介词 + 关系代词(非 that / as)… + 完整句

定语从句省略关系代词 who / whom / which / that 的情况:

The man (who) you like is going to school.

由关系副词引导:

  • when / where / why … + 完整句
状语从句

状语从句通常会出现在主句的前面或后面,有时插入主句中间也会被两个逗号隔开,因此相对来说比较好拆分。其形式也很简单:

  • 连词 + 完整句

倒装句

Here comes the rain again = The rain comes here again.

现在完成式(Present Perfect Tense)

Just Yet Still Already
意思 刚刚、刚好、刚才 还未完成 原本预计内应该要完成,但还未完成 已经完成,比预期内提早完成
位置 放在助动词 Have 与动词之间 句末 句中 放在助动词 Have 与动词之间
语气 中立 批判
否定型
例句 I have just handed in my homework. (我刚刚递交了功课。) I have not yet handed in my homework. (我还未递交功课。) (暗藏意味:尚未完成某些事,也不知道什么时候会完成,时间点比较模糊) I still have not handed in my homework. (我仍然未递交功课。) (暗藏意味:期限已经过了,但是我还是没有交功课。) I have already handed in my homework. (我已经递交了功课。) (暗藏意味:我在限期前交了功课。)

不定式

表结果

  • I hurried to the railway station to find my train is gone.
    ✔️ 我匆忙地赶到火车站(结果)却发现我的车已经出发了。
    ❌ 我匆忙地赶到火车站,是为了发现我的车已经走了(目的)。
  • 🌰 A Pittsburgh-area woman with car trouble popped the hood of her vehicle to find squirrels had hidden more than 200 walnuts in the car's body.
  • 🌰 He survived to see the end of the war.

虚拟语气

英语分 3 种语气:

  • 陈述语气:陈述事实、提出看法或问题等。所说的是真的。
    I like this book the best.
    If you get up earlier, you will be able to catch the first bus.

  • 祈使语气:表示请求、命令或警告等。希望所说的成真。
    Don’t be so careless.

  • 虚拟语气:表示假想或主观愿望。所说的与事实不符。
    I suggest that we should go tomorrow.
    If you dropped the glass, it would break.

How to 虚拟语气:

  • 以动词的过去式作为表达「非事实」的手段。
  • 过去式并不是过去时。虚拟语气中的过去式只是一个表示虚拟语气的形式,而不是表示过去的时态的形式。

虚拟现在

  • 条件从句的谓语:用过去式(be 用 were)
  • 主句谓语:should / would / could / might + 动词原形

e.g. (example given)

  • If I were you, I would not tell him the truth.
  • If we left now, we should arrive in good time.

虚拟过去

因为时间本来就是过去,若还要用过去形态来表达非事实语气,就必须用过去完成的形态。

  • 条件从句的谓语:had+ 过去分词
  • 主句谓语:should / would / could / might + have+ 过去分词

e.g.

  • If you had got up earlier, you would have caught the first bus.
  • If he had been in that train then, he might have been killed in that accident.

虚拟将来

  • 条件从句的谓语:用过去式(be 用 were)
  • 主句谓语:should / would / could / might + 动词原形

e.g.

  • If he went, would you go too.
  • If I asked him, I'm sure he'd help us.
  • 可能性特别低:should
    If I should win the lottery, I would buy you a car.
  • 不可能发生:were to
    If I were to lie to her, I would lose her.

倒装结构
If I were a boy, I might be very handsome. = Were I a boy, I might be very handsome.

be 动词因虚拟语气变为过去式时只会变为 were,而永远不会变成 was。

混合时态会有一个明显的时间标识,例如 now:
If I had finished my work earlier, I could have dinner now.
If you'd listened to me, you wouldn't be in such trouble now.

混合语气
I could have caught that bus, only that I forgot to get any money out.

特殊结构

  • She was the only person to survive the air crash.

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