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英语语法

语法为表达服务。

现在完成式(Present Perfect Tense)

Just Yet Still Already
意思 刚刚、刚好、刚才 还未完成 原本预计内应该要完成,但还未完成 已经完成,比预期内提早完成
位置 放在助动词 Have 与动词之间 句末 句中 放在助动词 Have 与动词之间
语气 中立 批判
否定型
例句 I have just handed in my homework. (我刚刚递交了功课。) I have not yet handed in my homework. (我还未递交功课。) (暗藏意味:尚未完成某些事,也不知道什么时候会完成,时间点比较模糊) I still have not handed in my homework. (我仍然未递交功课。) (暗藏意味:期限已经过了,但是我还是没有交功课。) I have already handed in my homework. (我已经递交了功课。) (暗藏意味:我在限期前交了功课。)

不定式

表结果

  • I hurried to the railway station to find my train is gone.
    ✔️ 我匆忙地赶到火车站(结果)却发现我的车已经出发了。
    ❌ 我匆忙地赶到火车站,是为了发现我的车已经走了(目的)。
  • 🌰 A Pittsburgh-area woman with car trouble popped the hood of her vehicle to find squirrels had hidden more than 200 walnuts in the car's body.
  • 🌰 He survived to see the end of the war.

虚拟语气

英语分 3 种语气:

  • 陈述语气:陈述事实、提出看法或问题等。所说的是真的。
    I like this book the best.
    If you get up earlier, you will be able to catch the first bus.

  • 祈使语气:表示请求、命令或警告等。希望所说的成真。
    Don’t be so careless.

  • 虚拟语气:表示假想或主观愿望。所说的与事实不符。
    I suggest that we should go tomorrow.
    If you dropped the glass, it would break.

How to 虚拟语气:

  • 以动词的过去式作为表达「非事实」的手段。
  • 过去式并不是过去时。虚拟语气中的过去式只是一个表示虚拟语气的形式,而不是表示过去的时态的形式。

虚拟现在

  • 条件从句的谓语:用过去式(be 用 were)
  • 主句谓语:should / would / could / might + 动词原形

e.g. (example given)

  • If I were you, I would not tell him the truth.
  • If we left now, we should arrive in good time.

虚拟过去

因为时间本来就是过去,若还要用过去形态来表达非事实语气,就必须用过去完成的形态。

  • 条件从句的谓语:had+ 过去分词
  • 主句谓语:should / would / could / might + have+ 过去分词

e.g.

  • If you had got up earlier, you would have caught the first bus.
  • If he had been in that train then, he might have been killed in that accident.

虚拟将来

  • 条件从句的谓语:用过去式(be 用 were)
  • 主句谓语:should / would / could / might + 动词原形

e.g.

  • If he went, would you go too.
  • If I asked him, I'm sure he'd help us.
  • 可能性特别低:should
    If I should win the lottery, I would buy you a car.
  • 不可能发生:were to
    If I were to lie to her, I would lose her.

Tips

  • 倒装结构

    If I were a boy, I might be very handsome.

    Were I a boy, I might be very handsome.

  • be 动词因虚拟语气变为过去式时只会变为 were,而永远不会变成 was。

  • 混合时态会有一个明显的时间标识,例如 now
    If I had finished my work earlier, I could have dinner now.
    If you'd listened to me, you wouldn't be in such trouble now.

  • 混合语气
    I could have caught that bus, only that I forgot to get any money out.

特殊结构

  • She was the only person to survive the air crash.

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