- 《英语阅读参考手册》为主，点此下载 电子书。
- 《柯林斯 COBUILD 英语语法大全》为辅。
- 不想看书，就看英语兔的视频吧：一个视频说清整个英语语法体系（重塑你的语法认知框架）- 哔哩哔哩 bilibili
- 过去时：I had lunch already. 我吃过午饭。
- 现在时：I am having lunch. 我正在吃午饭。
- 未来时：I am going to have lunch. 我（将要）去吃饭了。
- 现在完成时（Present Perfect Tense）：I have had lunch. 我吃完午饭了。
现在完成时（Present Perfect Tense）：
|位置||放在助动词 Have 与动词之间||句末||句中||放在助动词 Have 与动词之间|
|例句||I have just handed in my homework. (我刚刚递交了功课。)||I have not yet handed in my homework. (我还未递交功课。) (暗藏意味：尚未完成某些事，也不知道什么时候会完成，时间点比较模糊)||I still have not handed in my homework. (我仍然未递交功课。) (暗藏意味：期限已经过了，但是我还是没有交功课。)||I have already handed in my homework. (我已经递交了功课。) (暗藏意味：我在限期前交了功课。)|
英语分 3 种语气：
I like this book the best.
If you get up earlier, you will be able to catch the first bus.
Don’t be so careless.
I suggest that we should go tomorrow.
If you dropped the glass, it would break.
How to 虚拟语气：
- 条件从句的谓语：用过去式（be 用 were）
- 主句谓语：should / would / could / might + 动词原形
e.g. (example given)
- If I were you, I would not tell him the truth.
- If we left now, we should arrive in good time.
- 条件从句的谓语：had+ 过去分词
- 主句谓语：should / would / could / might + have+ 过去分词
- If you had got up earlier, you would have caught the first bus.
- If he had been in that train then, he might have been killed in that accident.
- 条件从句的谓语：用过去式（be 用 were）
- 主句谓语：should / would / could / might + 动词原形
- If he went, would you go too.
- If I asked him, I'm sure he'd help us.
If I should win the lottery, I would buy you a car.
- 不可能发生：were to
If I were to lie to her, I would lose her.
- 与现在相反 wish + 过去式： I wish (that) I were a rabbit
- 与过去相反 wish + 过去完成式：I wish (that) I had eaten the carrot.
- 与将来相反 wish + woud / should / could / might + 动词原形：I wish (that) I could eat the carrot.
would rather 与 wish 有类似的用法：
- I would rather that you didn't eat the carrot.
demand / suggest / insist / would rather + (should) + 动词原形
- I suggest that you (should) eat a carrot. (宾语从句)
- It is suggested that you (should) eat a carrot. (主语从句)
- The suggestion is that you (should) eat a carrot. (表语从句)
- It is (high) time that you ate a carrot. (定语从句)
If I were a boy, I might be very handsome. = Were I a boy, I might be very handsome.
be 动词因虚拟语气变为过去式时只会变为 were，而永远不会变成 was。
If I had finished my work earlier, I could have dinner now.
If you'd listened to me, you wouldn't be in such trouble now.
I could have caught that bus, only that I forgot to get any money out.
主语 + 谓语 + 宾语，例如：I love her.
主语 + 谓语，例如：I gave up.
主语 + 系动词 + 表语，例如：Tom is shrewd.
主语 + 谓语 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语，例如：I gave you a book.
如果你和我一样，经常分不清间接宾语和直接宾语，就记住上面这个例子，I gave you a book，我给了你一本书。当我拿着书递到你手上时，我直接接触的是书，所以叫直接宾语，间接接触你，所以叫间接宾语。
间接宾语和直接宾语的区别一般在疑问句里才有用，比如 Who did you buy the car for? 这句话翻译成汉语是「这辆车是你买给谁的？」，其中 who 充当了间接宾语，需要后面补出介词 for。即你不能这样问 Who did you buy the car?【误】
主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语，例如：Tom viewed Jerry as a hero.
宾语补足语 🆚 后置定语
- 宾语补足语：宾语在承受动作（谓语）之后才产生的属性，例如 We consider the answer correct.
- 后置定语：表明的属性和谓语体现的动作无关，例如 Tom love the girl operating the machine.
简单句 = 主干成分 + 非主干成分
The girl looked at me intently, and she invited me to her wedding.
这句话中 and 这个并列连词连接了两个不同的简单句，分别是：
- The girl looked at me intently.
- She invited me to her wedding.
- nor (neither…nor…)
- or (either … or…)
- not only … but also …
She said that the President went to the hospital yesterday.
she said …，另一个是
the President went to the hospital yesterday，其中
- which / that / who / whom / as …+ 非完整句（有时可以省略关系代词）
- whose …+ 完整句
- 介词 + 关系代词（非 that / as）… + 完整句
that vs which
The rabbit ate the largest carrot that I've ever seen.
All the rabbits that ate a carrot.
The only rabbit that ate a carrot.
The first rabbit that ate a carrot.
- which：先行词多选一，可替换为 that
The rabbit ate a carrot which i bought.
The rabbit ate a carrot that bought.
- My head,
which is big, is useful when it rains.
- The biggest carrot,
which the rabbit ate, was on the table.
- The rabbit ate the carrot, which was not surprising.
when / where / why … + 完整句
- That / Whether / How / Where / When + 完整句 + 谓语动词 + …
- What / Who + 非完整句 + 谓语动词 + …
主语从句太长，让整个句子头重脚轻，就可以用 It 做形式主语：
- It（形式主语）+ 谓语动词 + … + that + 完整句
- It is suggested / important / essential / necessary / demanded / insisted / ordered that you (should) eat a carrot. （虚拟语气）
- That you (should) eat a carrot is suggested / important / essential / necessary / demanded / insisted / ordered.
- 主语 + 及物动词 / 系动词 + that / whether / if / how … + 完整句
- that 有时可省略：I know (that) the rabbit ate a carrot.
- that 不可省略：I know, just like you do, that the rabbit ate the carrot.
- 主语 + 及物动词 / 系动词 + what / who / whom … + 非完整句
- 正确：I don't think (that) the rabbit is smart.
- 错误：I think (that) the rabbit isn't smart
主从时态一致（主句时态 = 宾语从句时态）
- I don' t think (that) you're right.
- I didn't think (that) you were right.
- I knew (that) the rabbit liked carrots.
- 永恒 / 客观 / 不变现象是例外：I knew (that) the sun rises in the east.
主语 + 用（连）系动词 + 表语（主语补语）
- 主语从句 + 表语：That the rabbit ate a carrot is a secret.
- 主语 + 表语从句：The secret is that the rabbit ate a carrot.
系动词是非 be 动词
- It seems that the rabbit is hungry.
- It feels that you're not telling the truth.
名词性成分 + that / whether / who … + 完整句
- The fact that the rabbit ate the carrot did not surprise me.
- The question whether the rabbit will eat the carrot is on all our minds.
- I have no idea who ate the carrot.
状语从句通常会出现在主句的前面或后面，有时插入主句中间也会被两个逗号隔开，因此相对来说比较好拆分。其形式也很简单：连词 + 完整句。
|as soon as||一……就……|
|the next time||下次|
The rabbit ate the carrot where he found it.
where he found it= 地点
The rabbit ate the carrot at the place where he found it
where he found it修饰先行词
引导词 whee 的强调形式有 wherever、everywhere、anywhere
口语中可以省略句末的 be 动词。
- He is smarter than me / l (am) .
- This carrot is bigger than that one (is) .
- She is more beautiful than Snow White (is).
- He is as smart as I am / me.
- This carrot is as big as that one (is).
- She is as beautiful as Snow White (is).
- The more you practice English, the more fluent you become.
真实条件句：If I saw a carrot. I would eat it.
虚拟条件句：If I had seen a carrot, I would have eaten it. (虚拟语气表示与事实相反)
- Unless you like (= If you don't like) this video, you will not give it a thumbs-up.
- Provided that my video is excellent, you will give it a thumbs-up.
- As long as I make excellent videos you will remain my follower.
- In case you don't understand, please comment below.
假设：Even if I see a carrot, i will not eat it.
事实：Although I see a carrot, i will not eat it.
- 引导词 Although = Though = Even though，后面主句不能加 but
- No matter what happens, I will not eat the carrot.
- 引导词 No matter = Regardless of
方式状语从句：You spend (so much) money as if you were a millionaire.
- 主句 You spend (so much) money 已发生
虚拟语气：If you were a millionaire, you would spend a lot of money.
- 从句 If you were a millionaire 未发生
- Eat the carrot as i do.
- You spend money the way (in which) millionaires do.
- Eat the carrot the way (in which) I eat it.
Because（引导从句，用在复杂句）和 so（连词，用在复合句）不能同时使用：Because the rabbit was hungry,
so he ate the carrot.
语气程度：Because > Since > As
- for：先果后因，一般前面是猜测，后面 for 提供依据
In order that I could finish the video in time, I pulled an all-nighter.
I pulled an all-nighter so that I could finish the video in time. (so that 不能放在开头)
I ate a lot of carrots for lunch so that I wasn't hungry at all in the afternoon.
I ate so many carrots for lunch that I felt sick afterwards.
It was such a tasty carrot that I ate it all at once. (such + 名词)
It was so tasty a carrot that I ate it all at once. (so + 形容词)
full infinitive（保留 to）
To be or not to be, that is the question.
bare infinitive（省略 to）
You helped me (to) cook the carrot.
To eat a carrot every day is good for the rabbit.
头重脚轻，改为：it（形式主语） is + 形容词 + for sb. + to do sth.
It is good for the rabbit to eat a carrot every day.
等于主语从句：It is good that the rabbit eats a carrot every day.
The rabbit likes to eat carrots.
I consider it（形式宾语） important
to eat a carrot every day.
The rabbit expected the wolf to eat a carrot.
使役动词 see、find、watch、have、make、let……可省略 to
Carrots make the rabbit feel happy.
The wolf helped the rabbit (to) grow carrots
The rabbit has a lot of carrots to eat.
I was surprised to get a thumbs-up. = I was surprised because I got a thumbs-up.
I will do anything to get a thumbs-up. = I will do anything in order that I get a thumbs-up.
I got enough thumbs-up to make another video. = I got enough thumbs-up so that I made another video.
Here comes the rain again = The rain comes here again.
- I hurried to the railway station to find my train is gone.
- 🌰 A Pittsburgh-area woman with car trouble popped the hood of her vehicle to find squirrels had hidden more than 200 walnuts in the car's body.
- 🌰 He survived to see the end of the war.
- She was the only person to survive the air crash.
- 博客：Liam Huang 的语法笔记：通俗易懂。