- 《英语阅读参考手册》为主，点此下载 电子书。
- 《柯林斯 COBUILD 英语语法大全》为辅。
- 不想看书，就看英语兔的视频吧：一个视频说清整个英语语法体系（重塑你的语法认知框架）- 哔哩哔哩 bilibili
- 过去时：I had lunch already. 我吃过午饭。
- 现在时：I am having lunch. 我正在吃午饭。
- 未来时：I am going to have lunch. 我（将要）去吃饭了。
- 现在完成时（Present Perfect Tense）：I have had lunch. 我吃完午饭了。
现在完成时（Present Perfect Tense）：
|位置||放在助动词 Have 与动词之间||句末||句中||放在助动词 Have 与动词之间|
|例句||I have just handed in my homework. (我刚刚递交了功课。)||I have not yet handed in my homework. (我还未递交功课。) (暗藏意味：尚未完成某些事，也不知道什么时候会完成，时间点比较模糊)||I still have not handed in my homework. (我仍然未递交功课。) (暗藏意味：期限已经过了，但是我还是没有交功课。)||I have already handed in my homework. (我已经递交了功课。) (暗藏意味：我在限期前交了功课。)|
英语分 3 种语气：
I like this book the best.
If you get up earlier, you will be able to catch the first bus.
Don’t be so careless.
I suggest that we should go tomorrow.
If you dropped the glass, it would break.
How to 虚拟语气：
- 条件从句的谓语：用过去式（be 用 were）
- 主句谓语：should / would / could / might + 动词原形
e.g. (example given)
- If I were you, I would not tell him the truth.
- If we left now, we should arrive in good time.
- 条件从句的谓语：had+ 过去分词
- 主句谓语：should / would / could / might + have+ 过去分词
- If you had got up earlier, you would have caught the first bus.
- If he had been in that train then, he might have been killed in that accident.
- 条件从句的谓语：用过去式（be 用 were）
- 主句谓语：should / would / could / might + 动词原形
- If he went, would you go too.
- If I asked him, I'm sure he'd help us.
If I should win the lottery, I would buy you a car.
- 不可能发生：were to
If I were to lie to her, I would lose her.
- 与现在相反 wish + 过去式： I wish (that) I were a rabbit
- 与过去相反 wish + 过去完成式：I wish (that) I had eaten the carrot.
- 与将来相反 wish + woud / should / could / might + 动词原形：I wish (that) I could eat the carrot.
would rather 与 wish 有类似的用法：
- I would rather that you didn't eat the carrot.
demand / suggest / insist / would rather + (should) + 动词原形
- I suggest that you (should) eat a carrot. (宾语从句)
- It is suggested that you (should) eat a carrot. (主语从句)
- The suggestion is that you (should) eat a carrot. (表语从句)
- It is (high) time that you ate a carrot. (定语从句)
If I were a boy, I might be very handsome. = Were I a boy, I might be very handsome.
be 动词因虚拟语气变为过去式时只会变为 were，而永远不会变成 was。
If I had finished my work earlier, I could have dinner now.
If you'd listened to me, you wouldn't be in such trouble now.
I could have caught that bus, only that I forgot to get any money out.
主语 + 谓语 + 宾语，例如：I love her.
主语 + 谓语，例如：I gave up.
主语 + 系动词 + 表语，例如：Tom is shrewd.
主谓 + 双宾语
主语 + 谓语 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语，例如：I gave you a book.
如果你和我一样，经常分不清间接宾语和直接宾语，就记住上面这个例子，I gave you a book，我给了你一本书。当我拿着书递到你手上时，我直接接触的是书，所以叫直接宾语，间接接触你，所以叫间接宾语。
间接宾语和直接宾语的区别一般在疑问句里才有用，比如 Who did you buy the car for? 这句话翻译成汉语是「这辆车是你买给谁的？」，其中 who 充当了间接宾语，需要后面补出介词 for。即你不能这样问 Who did you buy the car?【误】
主谓宾 + 宾补
主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语，例如：Tom viewed Jerry as a hero.
宾语补足语 🆚 后置定语
- 宾语补足语：宾语在承受动作（谓语）之后才产生的属性，例如 We consider the answer correct.
- 后置定语：表明的属性和谓语体现的动作无关，例如 Tom love the girl operating the machine.
简单句 = 主干成分 + 非主干成分
The girl looked at me intently, and she invited me to her wedding.
这句话中 and 这个并列连词连接了两个不同的简单句，分别是：
- The girl looked at me intently.
- She invited me to her wedding.
- nor (neither…nor…)
- or (either … or…)
- not only … but also …
She said that the President went to the hospital yesterday.
she said …，另一个是
the President went to the hospital yesterday，其中
- which / that / who / whom / as …+ 非完整句（有时可以省略关系代词）
- whose …+ 完整句
- 介词 + 关系代词（非 that / as）… + 完整句
that vs which
The rabbit ate the largest carrot that I've ever seen.
All the rabbits that ate a carrot.
The only rabbit that ate a carrot.
The first rabbit that ate a carrot.
- which：先行词多选一，可替换为 that
The rabbit ate a carrot which i bought.
The rabbit ate a carrot that bought.
- My head,
which is big, is useful when it rains.
- The biggest carrot,
which the rabbit ate, was on the table.
- The rabbit ate the carrot, which was not surprising.
when / where / why … + 完整句
- That / Whether / How / Where / When + 完整句 + 谓语动词 + …
- What / Who + 非完整句 + 谓语动词 + …
主语从句太长，让整个句子头重脚轻，就可以用 It 做形式主语：
- It（形式主语）+ 谓语动词 + … + that + 完整句
- It is suggested / important / essential / necessary / demanded / insisted / ordered that you (should) eat a carrot. （虚拟语气）
- That you (should) eat a carrot is suggested / important / essential / necessary / demanded / insisted / ordered.
- 主语 + 及物动词 / 系动词 + that / whether / if / how … + 完整句
- that 有时可省略：I know (that) the rabbit ate a carrot.
- that 不可省略：I know, just like you do, that the rabbit ate the carrot.
- 主语 + 及物动词 / 系动词 + what / who / whom … + 非完整句
- 正确：I don't think (that) the rabbit is smart.
- 错误：I think (that) the rabbit isn't smart
主从时态一致（主句时态 = 宾语从句时态）
- I don' t think (that) you're right.
- I didn't think (that) you were right.
- I knew (that) the rabbit liked carrots.
- 永恒 / 客观 / 不变现象是例外：I knew (that) the sun rises in the east.
主语 + 用（连）系动词 + 表语（主语补语）
- 主语从句 + 表语：That the rabbit ate a carrot is a secret.
- 主语 + 表语从句：The secret is that the rabbit ate a carrot.
系动词是非 be 动词
- It seems that the rabbit is hungry.
- It feels that you're not telling the truth.
名词性成分 + that / whether / who … + 完整句
- The fact that the rabbit ate the carrot did not surprise me.
- The question whether the rabbit will eat the carrot is on all our minds.
- I have no idea who ate the carrot.
状语从句通常会出现在主句的前面或后面，有时插入主句中间也会被两个逗号隔开，因此相对来说比较好拆分。其形式也很简单：连词 + 完整句。
|as soon as||一……就……|
|the next time||下次|
The rabbit ate the carrot where he found it.
where he found it= 地点
The rabbit ate the carrot at the place where he found it
where he found it修饰先行词
引导词 whee 的强调形式有 wherever、everywhere、anywhere
口语中可以省略句末的 be 动词。
- He is smarter than me / l (am) .
- This carrot is bigger than that one (is) .
- She is more beautiful than Snow White (is).
- He is as smart as I am / me.
- This carrot is as big as that one (is).
- She is as beautiful as Snow White (is).
- The more you practice English, the more fluent you become.
真实条件句：If I saw a carrot. I would eat it.
虚拟条件句：If I had seen a carrot, I would have eaten it. (虚拟语气表示与事实相反)
- Unless you like (= If you don't like) this video, you will not give it a thumbs-up.
- Provided that my video is excellent, you will give it a thumbs-up.
- As long as I make excellent videos you will remain my follower.
- In case you don't understand, please comment below.
假设：Even if I see a carrot, i will not eat it.
事实：Although I see a carrot, i will not eat it.
- 引导词 Although = Though = Even though，后面主句不能加 but
- No matter what happens, I will not eat the carrot.
- 引导词 No matter = Regardless of
方式状语从句：You spend (so much) money as if you were a millionaire.
- 主句 You spend (so much) money 已发生
虚拟语气：If you were a millionaire, you would spend a lot of money.
- 从句 If you were a millionaire 未发生
- Eat the carrot as i do.
- You spend money the way (in which) millionaires do.
- Eat the carrot the way (in which) I eat it.
Because（引导从句，用在复杂句）和 so（连词，用在复合句）不能同时使用：Because the rabbit was hungry,
so he ate the carrot.
语气程度：Because > Since > As
- for：先果后因，一般前面是猜测，后面 for 提供依据
In order that I could finish the video in time, I pulled an all-nighter.
I pulled an all-nighter so that I could finish the video in time. (so that 不能放在开头)
I ate a lot of carrots for lunch so that I wasn't hungry at all in the afternoon.
I ate so many carrots for lunch that I felt sick afterwards.
It was such a tasty carrot that I ate it all at once. (such + 名词)
It was so tasty a carrot that I ate it all at once. (so + 形容词)
full infinitive（保留 to）
To be or not to be, that is the question.
bare infinitive（省略 to）
You helped me (to) cook the carrot.
To eat a carrot every day is good for the rabbit.
头重脚轻，改为：it（形式主语） is + 形容词 + for sb. + to do sth.
It is good for the rabbit to eat a carrot every day.
等于主语从句：It is good that the rabbit eats a carrot every day.
The rabbit likes to eat carrots.
I consider it（形式宾语） important
to eat a carrot every day.
The rabbit expected the wolf to eat a carrot.
使役动词 see、find、watch、have、make、let……可省略 to
Carrots make the rabbit feel happy.
The wolf helped the rabbit (to) grow carrots
The rabbit has a lot of carrots to eat.
I was surprised to get a thumbs-up. = I was surprised because I got a thumbs-up.
I will do anything to get a thumbs-up. = I will do anything in order that I get a thumbs-up.
I got enough thumbs-up to make another video. = I got enough thumbs-up so that I made another video.
Eating carrots is healthy for the rabbit.
The rabbit's hobby is growing carrots.
Seeing is believing.
a sleeping pill = a pill for sleeping
The rabbit likes eating carrots.
The rabbit enjoys eating carrots.
- insist on
- give up
- feel like
- put off
介词 + 宾语（动名词）
The rabbit is fond of eating carrots.
The rabbit is looking forward to（介词） seeing the wolf again.
a sleeping rabbit ≠ a rabbit for sleeping
The game is exciting.
The wolf saw the rabbit eating a carrot.
Hearing the news, the rabbit became excited.
When he heard the news, the rabbit became excited.
Not knowing what to eat, the rabbit skipped lunch.
Because he didn't know what to eat, the rabbit skipped lunch.
a minced carrot
The carrot cake eaten by the rabbit is delicious.
The rabbit is interested.
The story is interesting.
The rabbit was frightened.
The rabbit was frightening.
The rabbit found his carrot stolen.
Seen from the hill, the carrot field looks beautiful.
Seeing the carrot field, the rabbit ran towards it.
Born in a rabbit family, the rabbit's only work is growing carrots.
Given another chance, the rabbit would go to the wolf's party.
Here comes the rain again = The rain comes here again.
- I hurried to the railway station to find my train is gone.
- 🌰 A Pittsburgh-area woman with car trouble popped the hood of her vehicle to find squirrels had hidden more than 200 walnuts in the car's body.
- 🌰 He survived to see the end of the war.
- She was the only person to survive the air crash.
- 博客：Liam Huang 的语法笔记：通俗易懂。